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ECONOMY

Bible DictionaryConstitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Article 43 [Principles]The economy of the Islamic Republic of Iran, with its objectives of achieving the economicindependence of the society, uprooting poverty and deprivation, and fulfilling human needs in theprocess of development while preserving human liberty, is based on the following criteria:1. the provision of basic necessities for all citizens: housing, food, clothing, hygiene, medicaltreatment, education, and the necessary facilities for the establishment of a family;2. ensuring conditions and opportunities of employment for everyone, with a view to attainingfull employment; placing the means of work at the disposal of everyone who is able to work butlacks the means, in the form of cooperatives, through granting interest-free loans or recourse toany other legitimate means that neither results in the concentration or circulation of wealth in thehands of a few individuals or groups, nor turns the government into a major absolute employer.These steps must be taken with due regard for the requirements governing the general economicplanning of the country at each stage of its growth;3. the plan for the national economy must be structured in such a manner that the form, content,and hours of work of every individual will allow him sufficient leisure and energy to engage,beyond his professional endeavor, in intellectual, political, and social activities leading to allrounddevelopmentof his self, to take active part in leading the affairs of the country, improve his skills, and to makefull use of his creativity;4. respect for the right to choose freely an occupation; refraining from compelling anyone toengage in a particular job; and preventing the exploitation of another's labor;5. the prohibition of infliction of harm and loss upon others, monopoly, hoarding, usury, andother illegitimate and evil practices;6. the prohibition of extravagance and wastefulness in all matters related to the economy,including consumption, investment, production, distribution, and services;7. the utilization of and the training of skilled personnel in accordance with the developmentalneeds of the country's economy;8. prevention of foreign economic domination over the country's economy:9. emphasis on increase of agricultural, livestock, and industrial production in order to satisfypublic needs and to make the country self-sufficient and free from dependence.Article 44 [Sectors](1) The economy of the Islamic Republic of Iran is to consist of three sectors: state, cooperative,and private, and is to be based on systematic and sound planning.(2) The state sector is to include all large-scale and mother industries, foreign trade, majorminerals, banking, insurance, power generation, dams, and large-scale irrigation networks, radioand television, post, telegraph and telephone services, aviation, shipping, roads, railroads and thelike; all these will be publicly owned and adMinistered by the State.(3) The cooperative sector is to include cooperative companies and enterprises concerned withproduction and distribution, in urban and rural areas, in accordance with Islamic criteria.(4) The private sector consists of those activities concerned with agriculture, animal husbandry,industry, trade, and services that supplement the economic activities of the state and cooperativesectors.(5) Ownership in each of these three sectors is protected by the laws of the Islamic Republic, inso far as this ownership is in conformity with the other articles of this chapter, does not gobeyond the bounds of Islamic law, contributes to the economic growth and progress of thecountry and does not harm society.(6) The scope of each of these sectors as well as the regulations and conditions governing theiroperation, will be specified by law.Article 45 [Public Wealth]Public wealth and property, such as uncultivated or abandoned land, mineral deposits, seas, lakes,rivers and other public waterways, mountains, valleys, forests, marshlands, natural forests,unenclosed pastures, legacies without heirs, property of undetermined ownership, and publicproperty recovered from usurpers, shall be at the disposal of the Islamic government for it toutilize in accordance with the public interest. Law will specify detailed procedures for theutilization of each of the foregoing items.Article 46 [Fruits of Business]Everyone is the owner of the fruits of his legitimate business and labor, and no one may depriveanother of the opportunity of business and work under the pretext of his right to ownership.Article 47 [Private Property]Private ownership, legitimately acquired, is to be respected. The relevant criteria are determinedby law.Article 48 [Resources for Regions]There must be no discrimination among the various provinces with regard to the exploitation ofnatural resources, utilization of public revenues, and distribution of economic activities amongthe various provinces and regions of the country, thereby ensuring that every region has access tothe necessary capital and facilities in accordance with its needs and capacity for growth.Article 49 [Confiscation]The government has the responsibility of confiscating all wealth accumulated through usury,usurpation, bribery, embezzlement, theft, gambling, misuse of endowments, misuse ofgovernment contracts and transactions, the sale of uncultivated lands and other resources subjectto public ownership, the operation of centers of corruption, and other illicit means and sources,and restoring it to its legitimate owner; and if no such owner can be identified, it must beentrusted to the public treasury. This rule must be executed by the government with due care,after investigation and furnishing necessary evidence in accordance with the law of Islam.Article 50 [Preservation of the Environment]The preservation of the environment, in which the present as well as the future generations have aright to flourishing social existence, is regarded as a public duty in the Islamic Republic.Economic and other activities that inevitably involve pollution of the environment or causeirreparable damage to it are therefore forbidden.Article 51 [Taxation]No form of taxation may be imposed except in accordance with the law. Provisions for taxexemption and reduction will be determined by law.Article 52 [Budget]The annual budget of the country will be drawn up by the government in the manner specified bylaw and submitted to the Islamic Consultative Assembly for discussion and approval. Any changein the figures contained in the budget will be in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.Article 53 [Central Treasury]All sums collected by the government will be deposited into the government accounts at thecentral treasury, and all disbursements, within the limits of allocations approved, shall be made inaccordance with law.Article 54 [Accounting Agency]The National Accounting Agency is to be directly under the supervision of the IslamicConsultative Assembly. Its organization and mode of operation in Tehran and at the provincialcapitals are to be determined by law.Article 55 [Auditing, Report]The National Accounting Agency will inspect and audit, in the manner prescribed by law, all theaccounts of ministries, government institutions, and companies as well as other organizations thatdraw, in any way, on the general budget of the country, to ensure that no expenditure exceeds theallocations approved and that all sums are spent for the specified purpose. It will collect allrelevant accounts, documents, and records, in accordance with law, and submit to the IslamicConsultative Assembly a report for the settlement ofeach year's budget together with its own comments. This report must be made available to thepublic.
Bible DictionarySociology Dictionary
The organization of production and distribution of goods and services within a sociocultural system.

 

Social Science Dictionary INDEX:


List of Terms: Terms beginning with "A", Page 1

Starts With:  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 3
Page Number:  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

A: Page 1 of 19.

AAGRA
AAR
ABOLFAZL SHADVAR
ABSOLUTE POVERTY
ACCRUED INTEREST
ACHIEVED STATUS
ACID RAIN
ACUTE DISEASE
ADAPTATION
ADJUSTED GROSS ...AERO
AFFIRMATIVE ACT...
AG
AGE GRADES
AGE STRUCTURE
AGEISM
AGENCIES OF SOC...AGRA
AGRARIAN SOCIET...AGRIBUSINESS
AIDS (Acquired ...
AIR POLLUTION
ALAA
ALIENATION
ANDROGYNY
ANIMISM
ANOMIA
ANOMIE
ANOMIE THEORY
ANTHROPOLOGY
APARTHEID
APEC
APG
APPROPRIATE TEC...ARMS RACE
ARMS TRADE
ARRANGED MARRIA...ASCRIBED STATUS
ASSET PROTECTIO...
ASSETS
ASSIMILATION
AUTHORITARIAN P...
AUTHORITY
AUTOCRATIC RULE
AUTOMATION
Abatement
Abbey
Abbot
Ability-to-Pay ...Ablutophobia
Absolute Advant...
Absolute advant...Abundance
Acarophobia
Accelerator
Acceptance
Acceptance-reje...
Accolade
Accoutrement
Acerophobia
Acheronophobia
Achluophobia
Acid Rain
Acousticophobia
Acquired Endowm...Acquittal
Acre
Acrophobia
Act of Parliame...
Acting Speaker
Active Alumni M...Adaptive Expect...
Additive
Address in Repl...Administrator o...
Admiral
Adoubement
Advance estimate
Adventurous Shi...Adverse Selecti...Aeroacrophobia
Aeronausiphobia
Aerophobia
Affection
Agency problem
Agency problem ...Agency problem ...
Aggregate Deman...Aggregate Expen...Aggregate Suppl...
Aggregate demand
Aggregate supply
Aggression
Agincourt, Batt...Agliophobia
Agoraphobia
Agraphobia
Agrizoophobia
Agyrophobia

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